پنج‌شنبه 17 اردیبهشت‌ماه سال 1394



This lesson looks at the idea of range of grammar. If you are aiming for a high band score, it is not simply enough not to make mistakes, you also need to show that you can use a number of different grammatical constructions. First of all, I talk you through some principles and then I give you some practical suggestions on what sort of grammar can help and, just as importantly, how to use it.

Test yourself first

Before you read on. You might want to ask yourself these questions:

    Am I going to impress more with longer sentences?
    Do I have a strategy for when I use simpler grammar and more complex grammar?
    When and why do I use complex grammar like relative and conditional clauses?

An essay should combine simple with complex grammar

This is the starting point. A well-written essay should be relatively easy to read. This means that you need to combine the simple with the complex. Where you have straightforward to say, you should not try and show off your grammar by making it seem complex – indeed, that’s a very common mistake.

Typically, you should aim for:

    simple structures when you are making main points – often in the opening and/or closing sentences of your paragraphs
    more complex structures when you are explaining/developing  those main points  in the body of your paragraphs
    a movement from the more simple to the more complex

When you have something simple to say, say it simply. Only use complex structures for more complex thoughts.

An example of the simple and the complex

An essay should combine longer and shorter sentences

In many ways this is the same point. It is absolutely not the case of long sentences good, short sentences bad. There will be times when a short sentence is more effective than a long sentence. In general, though, you should avoid the extremes of very long and very short. Also, you need to ask yourself how complex your sentences are. Shorter sentences can work:

    if they are used in combination with longer sentences, or
    if they are relatively complex

Longer sentences can work:

    if they are used with shorter sentences, or
    if they are simpler in structure (using “and” and “but”)

Be careful of too many long, complex sentences and too many short simple sentences

A paragraph with different sentence lengths
Examples of grammar that can work

This is not intended to be a list of advanced grammar points that will guarantee you a band score 8.0. Rather, the idea here is to show you grammar connects to meaning. You should never just use a structure because it is “good” grammar. Instead, you need to ask yourself what is the best way I can express this point.

The best writers use these structures when they need to, not because they think they have to
1. the passive

I start with the passive because it is so often misused. It is not the case that the passive is an academic structure that should be used in essays. We use it all the time in all sorts of contexts. Here, though, is one way you might find it helpful in writing:  to avoid repeating words – especially nouns/pronouns. You may want to avoid using some words too much – especially words from the question. Here the passive can help you. In a question about government action, rather than writing:

    The government should introduce measures to

you can try

    Measures should be introduced

so that you don’t repeat the word “government”.
2. Relatives

This is another piece of grammar you need to feel comfortable with and can help you. You should be careful, however, not to overuse relatives as they can make your writing both confusing and confused. One tip I would give you here is to try and restrict yourself to one relative per sentence and to try and avoid them in already complex sentences. Look at this example:

    There is a real danger that allowing people to travel for free would deprive transport authorities funds which they need and lead to a  lower standard of service.

The relative can be avoided by changing it into an adjective phrase:

    There is a real danger that allowing people to travel for free would deprive transport authorities of much needed funds and lead to a  lower standard of service.

When you do use relatives though is to define terms and add detail. Here is an example in action:

    More than that, if the authorities plan carefully, they can use the occasion of the sporting event to help finance public works which benefit the whole population in the long term.

I want to say what sort of “public works” I am referring to so I define them in the relative which benefit the whole population in the long term.
3. Conditionals

Here is another piece of grammar that can help you out. Provided that is, you see how and when to use it. One of the best ways to use these conditionals to explain and give examples. This means they are likely to come in the body of your paragraphs and not the introduction/opening sentence. Try this example:

    There is also, however, a strong argument not to implement this proposal. This argument is based on economic competitiveness. If a company was forced to employ more workers to produce the same amount of goods, then its wage bill would rise and its products might become more expensive and less competitive compared to companies with longer working weeks. In this case, it is possible that the company either might become insolvent or it would have to make some employees redundant. As a result, the intended benefit to the personnel would not happen.

This time around I have given you the whole para so that you can see the context. I use a conditional because I am explaining a point. You should also see that we use “might” and “would” in the following sentences even though there is no “if”.

Do you want to show off? Then you might consider using conditionals that do not use if. So you could use:

    Were a company to be forced…

4. Parallel structures

There are a number of different parallel structures we have in English. They come in useful when we are combining, comparing or contrasting points – again something that you are likely to do in your essays. This is a useful piece of grammar to focus on, as when used well they make your writing more cohesive. For example

    Not only would unemployment be reduced, but the working conditions of employees on very long shifts would also be significantly improved.

You may think “not only..but also” is too easy to impress. Don’t. Simple things done well impress too and this sentence is complex enough as it is.
5. Verb tenses (of course), impersonal structures and modals

The point to remember here is that it is not difficulty of grammar that is important, rather it is variety of grammar. This means that some bits of grammar that you think are rather simple (e.g. tenses) are still important. The point I want to make here is that the one tense you are going use most is the present simple. Checking my essays, I find that easily the most common tense I use is the present simple. That’s how it should be – it is easily the most common tense in English.

You do want some variety though, and here is how I get it. I use a lot of impersonal structures”

    There are several reasons why

and I also use a large number of modal verbs:

    It can also be argued that

The point here is that I use them to make impersonal points or sound academic. They too have their meanings and uses.
6. And and but

Never be afraid of keeping it simple. I do. My essays work. You will also find that I almost never use “moreover” and “furthermore”. More to the point, neither do band 8.0 candidates typically. When all you want to do is add a point say “and” and if you want to make a contrast, you are most likely to use “but” or “however,”.
Test your own writing

The best advice is of course always to find yourself a teacher, but if you are working by yourself, here is something you can do. Find an essay you have written and go through it:

    Do you use different grammatical structures? (You should have at least some of the ones I have mentioned)
    Can you see why you have used any of the more complex structures?
    How long is your average sentence? (around 15 words is about right I would suggest)
    Do your paragraphs combine longer and shorter sentences and simpler and more complex sentences?
    Do you use “and” and “but”?
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